Summary of the research:

1. The systematic analysis of scienfic research done has brought to light:

    1. the importance and necessity of optimization of physical loads for young basketball players since:

      • a mechanical increase of the volume of physical loads having become inefficient the necessity to change the paradigm dominant in sports training has arisen by optimization of the physical loads applied in training practice;

      • it is necessary that the volume of the load and the limits of its intensity be defined. Therefore optimization of practice load is an object of experimental testing both from the theoretical and didactic point of view of technology of sports training;

      • the period of 15–16 years of age for basketballers is a favourable phase of age for the optimization of physical loads since the players are able to bear physical loads required, there is a faster improvement in some indices of fitness and specific physical loads are dominant in this particular age phase.

    2. approaches and methods of optimization:

      • optimization by selecting and applying various objective criteria since only then the process of load optimization is a constructive one;

      • applying practice models of optimized loads since scientifically grounded practice models is an important factor in the improvement of preparedness of young basketball players;

      • the adequacy of competition and practice loads is an essential condition for the efficient optimization of physical loads.

2. The dominant physical load of basketball players aged 15–16 years during competitions was within limits of the 4th category of intensity in the case of playmakers and wing forwards and that of centre forwards – within limits of the 3rd category respectively. The dominant physical load during the regular training practice was within limits of the 2nd and 3rd categories of intensity in the case of playmakers that of wing forwards – within limits of the 3rd category and that of centre forwards – within limits of the 2nd category of intensity respectively.

The HR indices of basketball players recorded during competitions have confirmed a statistically significant (p<0.05) difference in physical loads compared to the loads dominant during regular practice.

3. After estimation of physical loads applied during competitions, as well as during regular and modelled practice, the mode and intensity of the loads, the changes introduced in them, as well as the level of correspondence in the degree of intensity between practice and competition loads, it is evident that modelling of physical loads is an efficient method of load control (forecasting, selection, application and correction) and the criteria of optimization applied (the maximum test, indices of HR, the structure of competition load and the situations dominant during basketball matches) are important factors for the constructive optimization of physical loads. The indices of intensity of physical loads dominant during optimized practice and the changes introduced in them are closer to the analogous indices of competition loads than the indices of loads applied during regular practice: a comparison of HR indices of playmakers during competitions and regular practice has revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) differences in five (of the total six) categories of intensity, in the case of competitions and modelled practice – in two categories of intensity respectively. There were statistically significant (p<0.05) differences in HR indices of wing forwards during competitions and regular practice in all six categories of intensity, and in the case of competitions and modelled practice – only in one category of intensity accordingly. Statistically significant (p<0.05) differences in HR indices of centre forwards during competitions and regular practice have been found in the categories of intensity, whereas in the case of competitions and modelled practice – only in one category of intensity respectively.

4. The data obtained as a result of the experimental research done have, virtually, confirmed the hypothesis of our study that practice models worked out according to different criteria of load optimization exerted an efficient influence on changes in the level of physical and technical preparedness of young basketball players.

There was a considerable improvement in the indices of physical preparedness of the basketballers studied:

    1. applying practice model I (where criteria of maximum test and recovery time after physical loads were dominant) there was a statistically significant (p<0.01) improvement in locomotive speed indices;

    2. applying practice model II (where the criterion of the structure of competition loads was dominant) and practice model IV (where the criteria of the structure of competition loads and transposition of game situations were dominant) there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in the indices of the physical property of speed endurance;

    3. practice model III (where the criterion of transposition of game situations to training practice was dominant) had no statistically significant (p>0.05) influence on the physical preparedness of basketballers.

There was a considerable improvement in the indices of technical preparedness of the basketballers studied:

    1. applying practice model II there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in the indices of accuracy of movements and special endurance;

    2. applying practice model III there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in the quantitative indices of stability and accuracy of actions in conditions of intensive physical load;

    3. applying practice model IV there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in the indices of accuracy of movements and special endurance, as well as in the indices of accuracy and stability of movements.

5. The results of the research done in the process of writing the dissertation enable us to assert that the way of optimization of physical loads applying objective criteria of load optimization and the realization of such load by modelling practical training sessions is efficient for the physical and technical training of young basketball players.

For more info please contact: Balciunas@basketballstudies.com

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